Miriam Joseph, Sister, –. The trivium: the liberal arts of logic, grammmar, and rhetoric: understanding the nature and function of language / by Sister Miriam. PDF The Trivium: The Liberal Arts of Logic, Grammar, and Rhetoric | For and Rhetoric Sister Miriam Joseph pdf, by Sister Miriam Joseph The Trivium: The. Sister Miriam Joseph's book, The Trivium: The Liberal Arts of Logic, Grammar, and Rhetoric, invites the reader into a deeper understanding--one that includes.
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etgabentisttus.tk: The Trivium: The Liberal Arts of Logic, Grammar, and Rhetoric ( ): Sister Miriam Joseph, Marguerite McGlinn: Books. Upon immediate inspection, The Trivium by. Sister Miriam Joseph (, originally published ) be seen as an outdated writing textbook, belonging on. Read PDF The Trivium: The Liberal Arts of Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric Book Details Author: Sister Miriam Joseph Pages: Binding.
McGuffey's Readers introduced nineteenth-century students to "correct" English. Strunk and White's Elements of Style and William Safire's column, "On Language," provide help on diction and syntax to contemporary writers and speakers. Sister Miriam Joseph's book, The Trivium: The Liberal Arts of Logic, Grammar, and Rhetoric , invites the reader into a deeper understanding--one that includes rules, definitions, and guidelines, but whose ultimate end is to transform the reader into a liberal artist.
A liberal artist seeks the perfection of the human faculties.
The liberal artist begins with the language arts, the trivium, which is the basis of all learning because it teaches the tools for reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Thinking underlies all these activities.
Many readers will recognize elements of this book: parts of speech, syntax, propositions, syllogisms, enthymemes, logical fallacies, scientific method, figures of speech, rhetorical technique, and poetics. The Trivium , however, presents these elements within a philosophy of language that connects thought, expression, and reality.
In the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, students studied and mastered this integrated view of language. Regrettably, modern language teaching keeps the parts without the vision of the whole. The arts of language are increasingly encompassing arts, each one fulfilling potentialities of the one before: one must be able to symbolize in order to think, and one should be able to think in order to persuade.
The Recovery & Renewal of the Liberal Arts of Language
A caveat here: a full treatment of each art would require a book. What follows will be a brief introduction of the arts, apart and together, with a Shakespearean illustration in honor of Sister Miriam Joseph.
The Liberal Art of Grammar Our students are not often enough philologists—lovers of language. Few own dictionaries, unfortunately, and the virtual ones they use seldom encourage the philological browsing which is one of the paths to a large vocabulary. During grammar, we will need to teach them to use dictionaries: how to see in their entries the pronunciation, etymology, elements prefix, base, and suffix , part of speech, meanings, and history of any word.
As a consequence, our course should have at least a brief lesson on dictionary entries. Depending on the degree of active literacy of the students, one might want to introduce them to the Greek and Latin roots that constitute such a large portion of English words, especially the more abstract ones.
We might advise them to study one of the ancient languages. I leave to the side the debate between prescriptive and descriptive grammarians, handled best by Bryan A. What is the meaning of any word?
What is its part of speech? How is the word functioning in its group of words?
Is the word-group a phrase, clause, or sentence? What kind of sentence is it? What is the effect of the sentence type? These seven questions presume quite a bit of grammar.
I find the best way to ensure they know grammar is through their reading and their writing. The isolation of a single sentence for analysis is illuminating.
Literary texts in English of whatever scale should be included here and throughout, allowing students to see that literature and composition are the same subject matter from different perspectives, those of making and receiving.
The single most important part of the study of grammar is this: the ability to determine when writing or reading a predication—the noun or noun phrase functioning as the subject and the verb or verb phrase functioning as the simple predicate.
In his essay on the rhetoric of grammar in The Ethics of Rhetoric , Richard Weaver is right that the noun, especially when by itself or as the heart of the noun phrase it constitutes the subject of a sentence, and the verb, because it is the heart of its predication, are the two most significant parts of speech: The verb is regularly ranked with the noun in force, and it seems that these two parts of speech express the two aspects under which we habitually see phenomena, that of determinate things and that of actions or states of being.
Between them they divide up the world at a pretty fundamental depth. Style is not at all reducible to correct grammar, since style, properly speaking, belongs to rhetoric. Good grammar is not sufficient for good style; even so, it is necessary. I have yet to see a good student writer who did not know any English grammar. That may be only an anecdotal correlation, but I have been teaching writing for almost twenty-five years. There is little so tragic educationally than students enslaved by a language they do not understand, little so educationally unjust than teachers who teach them everything but the knowledge of symbol that might set them free.
The Liberal Art of Logic Grammar is necessary, but not sufficient. I realize that logicians debate the relative merits of traditional and symbolic logic, but, while they do so, students frequently learn neither. With respect to the former, I emphasize generalization with its tests of accuracy, plenitude, and representativeness and analogy.
With respect to the latter, I emphasize the term especially definition and division , the proposition including the square of opposition , the relation of propositions in syllogism the categorical, the hypothetical and the disjunctive , and the most common fallacies, formal or material. It should be pointed out that, although students often arrive at college with some grammar, most arrive with no logic.
The art of symbol needs to be supplemented with that of thought, here reduced to the next seven questions: How accurate, numerous, and representative are its inductive statements? Which word in a statement is a logical term?
What is its central proposition, and what kind is it? What is the relationship between and among its propositions? If it is a syllogism, what kind, and is it valid and true?
If it is an enthymeme, what is the missing premise? Does it commit a fallacy? Answering these questions would require a fair degree of knowledge of logic. You do not want to increase beauty to extend its life. The couplet of the sonnet offers the Fair Youth a disjunctive imperative.
You are human. Therefore, you should want to increase beauty to extend its life, especially your own, you wanker. The forms of inductive and deductive reasoning, both in their flourishing versions true and valid and in their corrupted ones false and invalid inform human expression, even that expression of the most emotional topics.
All human discourse is symbolized, which is why we need to teach grammar, but it is also thought, which is why we need to teach logic. The Liberal Art of Rhetoric Grammar and logic are necessary, then, but they are still not sufficient for a full understanding of speech. That is, predication becomes proposition, and proposition becomes proof. Symbol and thought yield to communication and persuasion. Rhetoric is the consummate art of the trivium, the one that includes and fulfills the other two and draws the art of language toward the ethical and the political, for one may symbolize and think alone, but one communicates and persuades together with others.
Students will have learned some rhetoric, but they tend to arrive in two different groups: those who are suspicious of rhetoric because they mistakenly equate it with sophistry, and those who also equate it with sophistry but like it for that very reason. Like us, our students tend to be too philosophically virtuous or not philosophically virtuous enough.
Like us, they need the next seven questions: What is the rhetorical situation? Is it essentially deliberative, judicial, or ceremonial? What is its argument? What are its logical, ethical, and emotional appeals? What is its design principle—beginning, middle, and end?
What characterizes its diction, sentence rhythm, and figures of speech? How should it be delivered in recitation or performance? These seven questions encompass the art of rhetoric.
Because the sonnet indicts the Fair Youth, it is also judicial; indeed, since it assumes that the Fair Youth is Fair, it is also epideictic. The argument is clear, and he deploys logos, pathos, and ethos. A full treatment of the arts and an exhaustive analysis of the poem would require a course. But I hope they have revealed the content of the arts and a degree of their creative and explanatory power.
There are innumerable relations between and among the three arts, but why are they, ultimately, three sub-arts of one art of language? Because they share one essential concern: human language and its central wonder—the human capacity to symbolize, think, and communicate an assertion.
Trivium & Quadrivium
The proof of rhetoric is a proposition, and the proposition of logic is a predication. Ultimately, it is this potential which makes us different, whether by degree or in kind, from the other animals, the central and integrated power that makes it possible to learn at all. Aristotle is right: We are the animal with the most logos. All three arts are taught in the university, yet often too obliquely, and often their integrity is diminished.
Students receive vestiges of grammar in some form in remedial composition and regular foreign language courses; rhetoric in some form supports speech and communication departments and writing programs; and logic again, in some form is the subject matter of critical thinking courses.
Short of that, any one of the above departments could use its Core or General Educational requirement to do so—English, for example.
What a relief if English professors had to study logic! I would recommend inter-departmental participation for the intellectual health of the university.
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Inarticulate students are the ones most difficult to retain, after all, and, as colleges and universities begin to attend to the number of students not only admitted but also graduated, we will all have to do better at equipping students with the arts of articulation they require to understand the material in their coursework. Since these three arts inform the very arts of reading, writing, speaking, and listening that constitute such a large portion of their college and university work, we should teach those arts—fully and together.
Yet, without those arts, one cannot pursue a liberal education; with them, one is prepared for such an education which, recursively, illuminates the arts themselves, all of which concern our central human characteristic—sociorationality. Yet the arts can later be studied as objects of liberal education reflection, as well, understood in a more ample sense due to the education they have prepared for.We gave the second place to grammar because correct speech can be unadorned; but it can hardly be adorned before it is correct.
The Liberal Art of Grammar Our students are not often enough philologists—lovers of language. The liberal arts of language, the three ways of the trivium, are often said to have origin in the ancient world, an account which is partly right since grammar, logic, and rhetoric in the West are the inventions of ancient Greece, but, once the three are brought together into a system, it is the creation mostly of the medieval world, a creation that influenced language arts instruction certainly until the early modern period but probably well into the modern one.
Pleasurable goods are those which are desired for their own sake because of the satisfaction they give their possessor.
Because they share one essential concern: human language and its central wonder—the human capacity to symbolize, think, and communicate an assertion.
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Newman articulates perhaps the best definition of liberal education in Discourse V as the education that is an end and not a means to any other end. These seven questions presume quite a bit of grammar. If it is a syllogism, what kind, and is it valid and true?
Since these three arts inform the very arts of reading, writing, speaking, and listening that constitute such a large portion of their college and university work, we should teach those arts—fully and together.
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