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Often a ventilation fan see below is all you need to keep the temperature and humidity perfect. Air Circulation Marijuana uses carbon dioxide CO2 from the air. Learn more about heating and cooling in Chapter You will need an oscillating circulation fan to keep the air stirred up and CO2 readily available for plant intake.

Chances are the environment will need to be heated or cooled a little to maintain the ideal temperature and humidity. A circulation fan will also mix the hot air on top and cool air below so the temperature is even throughout the room. The ideal humidity for cannabis growth is 50—70 percent for pre-flowering and 50 percent for flowering plants. The CO2 is used up quickly around foliage. Light Provide light with fluorescent tubes.

The vent fan also removes hot. Air Ventilation Marijuana uses all the available CO2 in a room pretty fast. Inexpensive CFLs can grow small crops from start to finish. A ventilation fan expels used CO2-poor air. More expensive and versatile metal halide and HP sodium high intensity discharge HID lamps are available in many wattages from — and color spectrums. Fluorescent lamps are best suited to growing seedlings and clones. Each lamp has positive points and limiting points. The best CFLs for growing are available in wattages from 65— See Chapter 9: Grow Gear for details.

Both can be used to grow crops from beginning to end. If your water tastes bad and is full of sodium and other minerals. If it is okay to drink. Water and Drainage Ordinary tap water is usually adequate to grow cannabis. Such control is usually not necessary when growing with soil. Hydroponic grow mediums provide more air space around roots. Hydroponics allows the grower to control fertilizer nutrient levels and uptake by plants.

Organic soil gardens boast the best flavor and fragrance. If you cannot find good soil. Grow Gear for more information on soil mixes. For more information see Chapter 9: Grow Gear. Always download good soil that drains well. Soil Growing in soil is simple and easy. Hydroponic gardens can be very simple and inexpensive or complex and expensive.

Hydroponic gardens require more control of water. A seed that is planted in the spring will grow through the summer and flower in the fall. Seedling Cannabis is a short-day plant. In nature. As explained earlier in this chapter. Vegetative Indoors you can use this knowledge to control the life cycle and harvest up to six crops a year. Most varieties or strains will stay in the vegetative growth stage as long as they receive 18—24 hours of light and 6—0 hours of darkness.

Flowering Burmese 5 female Cannabis goes through three distinct stages of growth: Most strains of cannabis will flower when they receive 12 hours of light and 12 hours of uninterrupted darkness.

Seedlings need 16—18 hours of light to grow strong and healthy. Vegetative Growth. After three to seven days of germination. Seedling Growth Seed germination is induced with moisture. The Nebula seeds right have been germinating for 24 hours. Plants like the Jamaican Pearls right continue the seedling growth stage about a month. During this stage the seed establishes a root system and grows a stem and a few leaves.

Vegetative growth is maintained in this AK and other strains by giving plants 18—24 hours of light every day. As the plant matures. They are very frail and are easily damaged by light. Delicate root hairs will dry up and die without water. The delicate root hairs actually absorb water and nutrients.

The root tips push farther and farther into the soil in search of more water and food. The stomata open and close to regulate the flow of moisture. If the stem is bound too tightly by string or other tie-downs. The stem also supports the plant.

Tiny breathing pores called stomata are located on the underside of the leaf and funnel CO2 into contact with the water. Chlorophyll the substance that gives plants their green color converts carbon dioxide CO2 from air.

Bending and training plants also makes best use of light indoors. The central or terminal bud of this Thaitanic carries growth upward. The stem also grows upward producing new buds along the stem. The stem carries water and nutrients from the roots to the growing buds. Often indoor plants develop weak stems and may need to be staked up. This process is called photosynthesis.

You can see a male pre-flower nub in the photo above. Each sex has its own distinct flowers. Cannabis plants are normally either all male or all female.

They generally appear between the fourth and sixth node from the bottom of the plant. Pre-flowering Cannabis grown from seed grows pre-flowers after the fourth week of vegetative growth. The most desirable female plants are cultivated for their high THC content. Pre-flowers will be either male or female. The stomata also permit the outflow of water vapor and waste oxygen. Growers remove and destroy the males or use them for breeding stock because they have low levels of cannabinoids chemical components of marijuana: Intersex aka hermaphrodite flowers normally show up late in flowering and not at the pre-flowering stage.

Female pre-flowers Male pre-flowers. A grower removed the Super Silver Haze plant left from his garden as soon as he saw the male flowers.

Plants that developed in tropical regions often start flowering under more light and less darkness. Flowering Male Plants Flowering Flowering is triggered in most strains of cannabis like the Chronic bud below by 12 hours of darkness and 12 hours of light every 24 hours. Male seedlings that were not removed during pre-flowering are removed as soon as male flowers are visible so that they do not pollinate females.

Give mothers 18—24 hours of light daily so they stay in the vegetative growth stage. Seeds form and grow within the female flowers such as the seeds of the Sweet Diesel left. THC production peaks out and buds are ready to harvest. Sinsemilla flower buds continue to swell and produce more resin while waiting for male pollen to successfully complete their life cycle.

The male dies after producing and shedding all his pollen. Mother Plants Select strong. Seed Crops When both male and female flowers are in bloom. Cut branch tips from mother plants and root them.

You can collect the seeds roughly six to eight weeks after pollination. After weeks of heavy flower and cannabinoid-laden resin production. Once the root system is established. Clones take 10—20 days to grow a strong healthy root system. Clones Cut branch tips and root them to form clones.

Now they are ready to grow for one to four weeks in the vegetative growth stage before being induced to flower. Give clones 18—24 hours of light so they stay in the vegetative growth stage. You will need to control everything and everybody that enters and exits the area in proximity to the garden.

Land of the Free. Choose your friends and romantic partners carefully. Many times these friends and partners are pressured by police to turn you in. Make sure there are no telltale signs of growing. See Seed Ordering Security in Chapter 3. You can have visitors in your home. First you must restrict access to your garden. Do this by securing the perimeter around the grow house or wherever the garden is located. About 70 years ago Prohibition started in the United States of America.

Most often security breaches are the result of a jealous or vindictive friend. Today this crazy. Security has several facets and levels. Avoid visits from armed policemen! Keep your grow room secure and safe from thieves.

Security Hit List Never tell anybody about any garden Never show your garden to anyone! Do not throw out any garbage that could prove that you grow.

Never have seeds or grow products sent directly to your home Do not visit other grow houses. Check the sites www. Larger growers outwit thermal imaging devices by keeping lights on during daylight hours to confuse the technology.

Learn more about thermal imaging at http: More Security Details Call grow and seed stores from a secure or remote telephone Pay all bills and make all downloads with cash Pay for mail-order merchandise with a money order.

They further safeguard their grow operation by cooling exhaust air and expelling it under a well-insulated grow house so it does not leave a heat trail. Ground all electrical outlets and connections Inspect electrical connections for signs of heat damage and repair immediately Keep electrical use to a reasonable amount.

Do not use a film camera! Have a guard dog download a fire extinguisher rated to put out wood. Use a digital camera to take photos of your garden. Fragrance Do not let grow room air-conditioner water drain outdoors. Use insulated ducting Put rubber or foam fittings on all fans to reduce noise and vibrations Set ballasts on a noise-reducing base Lifestyle Never trust anybody—friends. download large assets such as houses and cars over time Have a regular job and a reason for your activities Have few visitors and keep to yourself Keep a low profile and be a good neighbor and citizen Keep your property clean and in excellent repair.

Some plants. Strong plants are the result of strong seeds and proper growing conditions. Seeds are the result of sexual propagation and contain genes from each parent. The genetic makeup of a seed is the single most important factor dictating how well a plant will grow under artificial light or natural sunlight and the levels of cannabinoids it will produce.

Order seed catalogs. Weak plant grown in poor conditions. Vigorous seeds initiate growth within seven days or sooner. Seeds stored too long will germinate slowly and have a high rate of failure. Strong seeds produce healthy plants and heavy harvests. Seeds that take longer than a month to germinate could always be slow and produce less.

Weak plants are the result of weak seeds and poor growing conditions. Mature seeds that are hard. Weak seeds are soft. Once germinated. Strong seeds are hard. Of these super females. Immature seeds germinate poorly and often produce sickly plants. Select this super female to be the clone mother. Normally some of the seeds will be male. Moisture Soaking seeds in water allows moisture to penetrate the protective seed shell within minutes.

Moisture continues to wick in to activate the dormant hormones. Moisture is critical now. Germinating and Planting Seeds To germinate. For best results use distilled water. There must be a constant stream of moisture to transport nutrients. In 24—72 hours. Letting germinated seeds suffer moisture stress now will stunt seedling growth.

Plant seeds twice as deep as the width of the seed.

Marijuana Grow Basics - Jorge Cervantes

Avoid high temperatures and low light levels. Seedlings do not have enough stored energy to force through too much soil before sprouting. Seeds not rooted by day 30 will probably grow slowly Once seeds are rooted. Air oxygen Seeds need air to germinate. Planting seeds too deeply also causes poor germination. For example.

CAB International. Afghanica Afghani has wide leaves and is often confused with indica strains. Each has distinct growth patterns. Cannabis Strains Technically and legally. Ruderalis Lowryder female plant. Most popular strains of cannabis are a combination of two or more of the following: Cannabis sativa can be further classified as: But there are also many seeds with the genes from just one of the below. Regardless of origin. At first seeds will float on top of the water. Do not soak longer or they could rot.

Day 1 Presoak seeds in a glass of plain distilled water for 24 hours. Day 2. Within a few hours. Seeds found floating the following day are probably not viable. As water penetrates they sink to the bottom. A small. Use a dinner plate or a small container with a grate.

The top of a refrigerator is ideal. Do not let seeds dry out or let water stand so oxygen is cut off to seeds. Check daily and keep evenly moist but not soggy.

Pour the water out of the glass and place the seeds on the moist paper towels and cover the seeds with three more moist paper towels. If using a plate. Set a paper towel or cheesecloth on the plate or grate and moisten it with distilled water until saturated.

Drain off all excess water and put the moist seeds in a shadowy. Let excess water drain away freely. A grate lets excess water drain away.

Prevent fungal attacks by watering with a mild two-percent bleach solution. Days 5—8 Once seeds have sprouted and the white sprout is visible. Do not throw them out. Seeds that do not show a white rootlet now may never germinate. But such seeds might never germinate. Days 5—8 Prepare a seed flat. Jiffy or rockwool cubes. Water the mix in the flat with plain water until it is completely saturated. Make small indent about 0. Point the white root downward. Take care not to expose the tender rootlet to prolonged intense light or air.

Once covered. Use tweezers and carefully remove each sprouted seed and set it in the premade planting hole. Cover the sprouted seed with a 0. The photo above shows clones on the left and seedlings on the right.

Germinate seeds before planting and make sure the white rootlet is at least 0. Seeds set inside rockwool blocks often heave up and out. Once planted. Within a couple of days of emerging.

Days 10—14 In four to six days after planting. After seven to ten days. Days 21—30 Start feeding two to four weeks after seedlings have sprouted. Use a mild quarter-strength solution. In 10 to 14 days all the seedlings should have true leaves that are the same size or larger than cotyledons. Some growers wait until leaves yellow to begin feeding. Some growers apply a mild quarter-strength fertilizer. Most important now is to keep the soil evenly moist.

If yellowing persists. Days 21—30 Peat pellets or root cubes both seedlings and clones may be transplanted in two to three weeks or when the roots show through the sides.

Feed with a dilute. Keep the soil uniformly moist. This is a critical time for plants. A shallow flat or planter with a heat pad underneath may require daily watering. Supplemental nutrients often disrupt internal chemistry. When the surface is dry 0. Days 26—30 Grow seedlings and clones under light fluorescent or dim HID light for the next couple of weeks.

Setting root cubes or planting flats on a grate allows good drainage. Do not let them dry out! Potential Problems Too much or too little light coupled with overwatering or underwatering are the main reasons for poor seedling growth. Household water contains enough dissolved solids food to nourish seeds through their first few weeks of life.

Keep it evenly moist. Overwatering and underwatering are the biggest obstacles most growers face when germinating seeds and growing seedlings. Seeds do not need any extra hormones to germinate. This sickly freak trifoliate seedling is the result of dodgy genetics as well. A properly watered flat of rockwool cubes needs water every three to five days when sprouting seeds.

This seedling is also a genetically unstable trifoliate with three sets of leaves and should be culled out. Soggy overwatered soil causes many problems. This is an excellent option because the grower usually knows the strain he is growing well and can tell you many details about growing it. How to Obtain Seeds Get seeds from a grower who developed them. Underwatered seedling with a purple stem demonstrates toxic nutrient accumulation.

Most such growers can also tell you about the qualities of the plant—taste. Always call several companies and ask them specific. Often the seed will grow into a plant that has only some traits of the parents. Find seeds in a bag of buds. Also check cannabis web site forums for more information and recommendations. Bag-seeds are okay because you will know more or less what the taste.

There are many seed shops that sell on-line listed under Find Seed Sellers Here on p It could also have intersex hermaphrodite tendencies. Before you download anything. Order seeds via mail order or Internet.

If you do not get a response. A good seed company will respond in one to two business days with good answers to your questions. Companies with an e-mail address and web site are usually okay to order from. Speak to a qualified representative who will provide good answers to your questions. You may prefer to order from a company you can contact by telephone see note under Seed Ordering Security on p When they do. Other companies take your money and do not ship the seeds.

The corrugated plastic is then placed inside an envelope and mailed. Packaging is important. United Kingdom. Find such seed stores at the web sites listed by the magazines and cannabis fair guides on the following page. The volume of first class mail is great. Often the salesperson has personal stories about favorite strains. You can walk right in and download them. The site also lists seed banks that do not advertise in catalogs. Seed sellers are rated with one to four stars.

Letters under one ounce 28 grams are not opened. download seeds personally at a shop. They sell you seeds that are not what they advertise them to be. Many seed companies place seeds inside the channels of corrugated plastic see photo left of filling seed packages at Dutch Passion.

When you talk personally with a seed merchant. Occasionally the Postal service will find such a seed shipment. Stores in Canada. Greenman gives security. Some seed merchants do not tell the truth about their seed stock. Seeds are easily crushed.

Seeds are available at shops in many countries. No further action is taken. It is easy to overcome such problems with a little homework. When will seeds be shipped? How are seeds packaged? What happens if seeds are lost? How long does the average order take to arrive? How are seeds shipped in a stealth package?

Are seeds in stock? Do you ship worldwide? They do not need to know what is in the package. Ask them not to open the package. Count on your e-mails being saved somewhere. Ship seeds to a real address and name. Ship seeds to a third party—friend. Use some initials in the name and address. Seed Ordering Security Pay with a money order.

Ask seed vendor to destroy your payment information as soon as your order is processed. Do not have seeds shipped to the same address where your garden is located Do not have packages sent that require a signature Use a public e-mail address when ordering.

Do not use this e-mail for other purposes. Many national governments monitor all international telephone calls. Even if you are a medical marijuana grower in the United States of America. Seized Seeds: Wait several days longer before you start searching for the shipment. International shipments take longer than domestic shipments. Patience is a virtue.

If you live in a country where seeds are illegal. You can see an actual letter at the site www. Use a telephone card and call from a public telephone or one that cannot be traced back to you. Do not telephone or e-mail vendor until a reasonable time has passed. We have never heard a report of a law enforcement official showing up at the door of a seed downloader. Do not call the seed company from a telephone located at a grow house. My preference is to download seeds that are in the middle price range.

More expensive seeds are usually more stable and extra care has been taken to produce them. Unless feminized. Of the desired female seeds. Seed Quantities and Pricing Seeds are generally sold in packages of 5. If you are not going to plant the seeds immediately. Male plants are weeded out and female seeds are harvested.

If seeds came in a see-through bag. Keep seeds dry or they might start to germinate. If one or a few are crushed. Receiving Seeds Check seeds to ensure none are crushed. Make sure to. Call or e-mail the seller immediately to explain the problem.

Feminized Seeds Feminized seeds are becoming very popular worldwide. Storing Seeds Store seeds in a cool. When grown in a stress- free environment virtually all feminized seeds grow into female plants. Label the crush-proof container before you place the seeds inside. Place them in a small dark vial or film canister with a dry packet of silicone. See Receiving Seeds. A little heat now will help nurture small seedlings to a strong start.

Seedlings During seedling growth. The new. Some seeds will remain viable for five years or longer when stored properly. But seeds a year old or older often take longer to sprout and have a lower rate of germination. As the seedlings mature. Water and heat are critical at this point of development. Most growers cull sickly. Some growers apply a mild quarter-strength fertilizer, but it is not necessary for another week. Most important now is to keep the soil evenly moist. Some growers wait until leaves yellow to begin feeding.

Use a mild quarter- strength solution. If yellowing persists, give seedlings a little more fertilizer. Peat pellets or root cubes both seedlings and clones may be transplanted in two to three weeks or when the roots show through the sides.

Feed with a dilute, quarter- strength fertilizer solution.

This is a critical time for plants, and they need extremely close attention. Do not let them dry out! This sickly freak trifoliate seedling is the result of dodgy genetics as well. Overwatering and underwatering are the biggest obstacles most growers face when germinating seeds and growing seedlings. Keep the soil uniformly moist, not waterlogged. Do not Underwatered seedling with a let the growing medium's surface dry for long.

Setting root cubes or toxic nutrient accumulation. This seedling is also a planting flats on a grate allows good drainage. A properly watered flat of rockwo01 cubes needs water every three to five days when sprouting seeds.

When the surface is dry 0. Remember, there are few roots to absorb the water early in life, and they are very delicate. Seeds do not need any extra hormones to germinate.

Household water contains enough Soggy overwatered soil causes dissolved solids food to nourish seeds through many problems. Supplemental nutrients often disrupt internal chemistry.

How to Obtain Seeds Get seeds from a grower who developed them. This is an excellent option because the grower usually knows the strain he is growing well and can tell you many details about growing it. Most such growers can also tell you about the qualities of the plant-taste, aroma, and high.

Bag-seeds are okay because you will know more or less what the taste, aroma, and high of the final product will be like. However, you will not know the growth characteristics of the plant, and the plant will not be genetically stable. Often the seed will grow into a plant that has only some traits of the parents. It could also have intersex hermaphro- dite tendencies. Order seeds via mail order or Internet. There are many seed shops that sell on-line listed under Find Seed Sellers Here on page Also check cannabis web site forums for more information and recommendations.

Before you download anything, send the seed company an e-mail with some questions and see how long it takes them to respond. A good seed company will respond in one to two business days with good answers to your questions. If you do not get a response, do not order! You may prefer to order from a company you can contact by telephone see note under Seed Ordering Security on page Speak to a qualified representative who will provide good answers to your questions.

Companies with an e-mail address and web site are usually okay to order from, but make sure they answer your e-mails promptly. The publisher, author, Back cover photo: Jorge Cervantes and others associated with the production of this book do not advocate breaking the law.

All text Artwork: Chris Valdes and illustrations are for descriptive purposes only. Book design: The publisher and the authors do not recommend Editors: Linda Meyer, Estella you try anything presented in this book.

You are Cervantes encouraged to read any and all information available for Contributors, photographers about cannabis to develop a complete background and more credits see page on the subject. However, there may be some mistakes in the text that the author and publisher were unable to detect. This book contains current information up to the date of publication.

Neither the publisher nor the author endorses any products or brand names that are mentioned or pictured in the text. These products are mentioned or pictured for illustration only.

Any advice provided in this book—electrical, legal, financial, scientific, etc. Neither the publisher nor the author assumes any responsibility for any actions associated with this advice.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any way whatsoever without written permission from the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages or reproduce illustrations in a review with appropriate credits; nor may any part of this book be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any electronic means, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or other without written permission from Jorge Cervantes.

Published by Van Patten Publishing, Inc. Check www. Cloning 66 Transplanting This book is designed to show everyone the basic things you need to know to grow a great crop of marijuana indoors. Upon finishing Marijuana Horticulture: Here it is, Marijuana Grow Basics: The Easy Guide for Cannabis Aficionados.

This image-based guide with more pictures and less text is designed to give indoor growers enough information to cultivate great crops, but not so much text that they are overwhelmed by horticultural concepts. Reading this book will be like going on a tour of the different grow rooms that I visited to collect information and photos for this book. How a plant grows: Grow gear: Growing the crop: You will also learn about pests, diseases, and troubleshooting your crop.

Examples of 54 specific gardens. Pests, diseases, and problems. A Sea of Green SOG garden is one that consists of short plants that grow closely together and mimic a sea of green. Any garden with plants huddled closely together qualifies as a sea of green. You can find many gardens in this book that qualify as a sea of green even though they may not be labeled as such.

Metric conversions are approximate. Find a secure location, plant good seeds or clones, create the proper climate—air, light water, nutrients, drainage, and growing medium—and start growing. Seeds soon turn into seedlings, and then put on leafy vegetative growth. They show male or female pre-flowers at the end of the vegetative growth stage.

Once flowering is induced, your marijuana plants will be ready to harvest in about two months. Read on and fill your mind with images to learn all the details! Security advertise in the magazines High Times, Cannabis twice!

Sometimes you will find seeds in buds. To learn more about seeds, see Chapter 3: Seeds and Germination. Clones Clones are branch tips cut from female marijuana plants and rooted. Clones are desirable because they are female and will flower sooner than seeds. A crop of clones can be harvested in about three months. Clones are not available by mail order. You must get them from a grower, friend of a grower, or medical marijuana cooperative. Learn more about clones in Chapter 7: Clones and Mother Plants.

A Space to Grow A grow space is easy to find in any home or structure. The grow space should be enclosed so that you can control the environment inside where the plants will grow. You can close off a corner of the basement, the attic, or a room on the main floor to make a grow room. Use plastic, wood or brick to enclose the room. You can also convert a closet into a grow room, or you can download a prefabricated grow cabinet or closet.

See Chapter Grow Cabinets, Closets, and Rooms. ABCs of Growing Indoors Temperature Control The temperature and humidity in grow space will need to be con- trolled. The ideal humidity for cannabis growth is 50—70 percent for pre-flowering and 50 percent for flowering plants.

Chances are the environment will need to be heated or cooled a little to maintain the ideal temperature and humidity. Often a ventilation fan see below is all you need to keep the tempera- ture and humidity perfect. Learn more about heating and cooling in Chapter Air Circulation Marijuana uses carbon dioxide CO2 from the air. The CO2 is used up quickly around foliage, and the air must be circulated so that new CO2 comes in contact with leaves.

You will need an oscillating circula- tion fan to keep the air stirred up and CO2 readily available for plant intake. A circulation fan will also mix the hot air on top and cool air below so the temperature is even throughout the room. Grow Cabinets, Closets, and Rooms for details. Air Ventilation Marijuana uses all the available CO2 in a room pretty fast. A ventilation fan expels used CO2-poor air.

The vent fan also removes hot, humid air from the grow space. Fresh, cool, dry air rich in CO2 is drawn into the room via a fresh-air intake vent. Light Provide light with fluorescent tubes, compact fluorescent lamps CFLs , metal halide lamps, or high pressure HP sodium lamps. Each lamp has positive points and limiting points.

Fluorescent lamps are best suited to growing seedlings and clones. Inexpensive CFLs can grow small crops from start to finish. The best CFLs for growing are available in wattages from 65— More expen- sive and versatile metal halide and HP sodium high intensity discharge HID lamps are available in many wattages from — and color spectrums.

Both can be used to grow crops from beginning to end. See Chapter 9: Grow Gear for details. Water and Drainage Ordinary tap water is usually adequate to grow cannabis.

If it is okay to drink, it is usually okay for your plants. If your water tastes bad and is full of sodium and other minerals, you may need to treat it with a reverse osmosis filter. Such control is usually not necessary when growing with soil. Hydroponics allows the grower to control fertilizer nutrient levels and uptake by plants.

Hydroponic grow mediums provide more air space around roots, and nutrient uptake is faster than in soil gardens. Hydroponic gardens require more control of water, pH, nutrients, and the root-zone environment. Hydroponic gardens can be very simple and inexpensive or complex and expensive.

For more information see Chapter 9: Grow Gear. Soil Growing in soil is simple and easy. Always download good soil that drains well. If you cannot find good soil, mix your own from quality components. Organic soil gardens boast the best flavor and fragrance. Grow Gear for more information on soil mixes. Cannabis Life Cycle and Indoor Growing Introduction Cannabis cultivated indoors needs 1 light 1 , air 2 , a growing medium 6 2 3 , warmth 4 , nutrients 5 , and water 6.

As explained earlier in this chapter, you can control all 5 3 these needs in your indoor garden 4 and achieve optimum results. Cannabis is a short-day plant. In nature, it flowers when autumn days are short and nights are long. Outdoors, cannabis normally grows as an annual plant, completing its life cycle within one year. A seed that is planted in the spring will Seedling grow through the summer and flower in the fall, producing more seeds.

Flowering Burmese 5 female Cannabis goes through three distinct stages of growth: Most vari- eties or strains will stay in the vegetative growth stage as long as they receive 18—24 hours of light and 6—0 hours of darkness. Most strains of cannabis will flower when they receive 12 hours of light and 12 hours of uninterrupted darkness.

Indoors you can use this knowl- edge to control the life cycle and harvest up to six crops a year. Seedling Growth Seed germination is induced with moisture, heat, and air which activate hormones within the seed.

The Nebula seeds right have been germinating for 24 hours. After three to seven days of germina- tion, the rootlet grows downward and a sprout with seed leaves pushes upwards in search of light. Plants like the Jamai- can Pearls right continue the seedling growth stage about a month. During this stage the seed establishes a root system and grows a stem and a few leaves. Seedlings need 16—18 hours of light to grow strong and healthy.

Vegetative Growth Vegetative growth is maintained in this AK and other strains by giving plants 18—24 hours of light every day. As the plant matures, the roots take on special- ized functions of transporting and storing food. The root tips push farther and farther into the soil in search of more water and food.

The delicate root hairs actually absorb water and nutrients. Delicate root hairs will dry up and die without water. They are very frail and are easily damaged by light, air, and bumbling hands if moved or exposed. The stem also grows upward producing new buds along the stem. The central or terminal bud of this Thaitanic carries growth upward; side or lateral buds turn into branches or leaves. The stem carries water and nutrients from the roots to the growing buds, leaves, and flowers.

If the stem is bound too tightly by string or other tie-downs, it will cut the flow of life-giving fluids, thereby strangling the plant. The stem also supports the plant.

Often indoor plants develop weak stems and may need to be staked up, especially during flowering. Bending and training plants also makes best use of light indoors. Chlorophyll the substance that Water Vapor gives plants their green color Water Vapor converts carbon dioxide CO2 from Oxygen CO2 Oxygen air, water, and light energy into carbohydrates and oxygen.

This process is called photosynthesis. Tiny breathing pores called stomata are located on the underside of the leaf and funnel CO2 into contact with the water. The stomata open and close to regulate the flow of moisture, preventing dehydration. The stomata also permit the outflow of water vapor and waste oxygen. Pre-flowering Cannabis grown from seed grows pre-flowers after the fourth week of vegetative growth.

You can see a male pre-flower nub in the photo above. They generally appear between the fourth and sixth node from the bottom of the plant. Canna- bis plants are normally either all male or all female. However, occasionally an intersex plant with both male and female flowers will appear.

Each sex has its own distinct flowers. Pre-flowers Intersex aka hermaphrodite flowers will be either male or female. Growers remove normally show up late in flowering and destroy the males or use them for breeding and not at the pre-flowering stage.

The most desirable female plants are cultivated for their high THC content. Flowering Flowering is triggered in most strains of cannabis like the Chronic bud below by 12 hours of darkness and 12 hours of light every 24 hours. Plants that developed in tropical regions often start flowering under more light and less darkness.

Flowering Male Plants Male seedlings that were not removed during pre-flowering are removed as soon as male flowers are visible so that they do not pollinate females. A grower removed the Super Silver Haze plant left from his garden as soon as he saw the male flowers. After weeks of heavy flower and cannabinoid-laden resin production, THC production peaks out and buds are ready to harvest.

Seed Crops When both male and female flowers are in bloom, pollen from the male flower lands on the female flower, thus fertilizing it. The male dies after producing and shedding all his pollen. Seeds form and grow within the female flowers such as the seeds of the Sweet Diesel left. You can collect the seeds roughly six to eight days after pollination. Mother Plants Select strong, healthy, potent mother plants. Give mothers 18—24 hours of light daily so they stay in the vegetative growth stage.

Cut branch tips from mother plants and root them. Clones Cut branch tips and root them to form clones.

Marijauna Grow Basics - Jorge Cervantes

Clones take 10—20 days to grow a strong healthy root system. Give clones 18—24 hours of light so they stay in the vegetative growth stage. Once the root system is established, transplant clones into larger containers. Now they are ready to grow for one to four weeks in the vegetative growth stage before being induced to flower. Today this crazy, paranoid prohibition has progressed and it is necessary to grow gardens in secure locations. Security has several facets and levels.

First you must restrict access to your garden. Do this by securing the perimeter around the grow house or wherever the garden is located. You will need to control everything and everybody that enters and exits the area in proximity to the garden. You can have visitors in your home, but always keep the garden under lock and key to restrict access.

Make sure there are no telltale signs of growing, the most obvious of which are fragrance, light leaks, noise, and growing supplies or debris. External forces could be tipped off to the garden's existence by your telling others about the garden; telephone conversations; tracking you home from hydroponics stores, other grow houses, or dealers' houses; lifestyle; computer data tracking; and thermal imaging devices.

Choose your friends and romantic partners Avoid visits from armed policemen! Most often security breaches are the result of a jealous or vindictive friend, lover, or partner. Many times these friends and partners are pressured by police to turn you in.

See Seed Ordering Security in Chapter 3. Keep your grow room secure and safe from thieves. Keep your computer secure from criminal and government snoops. Check the sites www. Thermal Image Technology Thermal image technology is illegal in the USA as a means to secure a search warrant, but in Canada, Holland, and other countries authorities fly grids over urban areas to look for possible growers.

Nonetheless, thermal image technology is seldom a problem for small growers who use less than watts oflight. Larger growers outwit thermal imaging devices by keeping lights on during daylight hours to confuse the technology. They further safeguard their grow operation by cooling exhaust air and expelling it under a well-insulated grow house so it does not leave a heat trail. Learn more about thermal imaging at http: Do not use a film camera! Seeds are the result of sexual propaga- tion and contain genes from each parent, male and female.

Some plants, known as hermaphro- dites, bear both male and female flowers on the same plant. The genes within a seed dictate a plant's size; disease and pest resistance; root, stem, leaf, and flower production; cannabinoid levels; and many other traits.

The genetic makeup of a seed is the single most important factor dictating how well a plant will grow under artificial light or natural sunlight and the levels of cannabinoids it will produce. Weak plants are the result of weak seeds and poor growing conditions. Strong, healthy parents and proper care yield strong seeds that germinate well.

Strong seeds produce healthy plants and heavy harvests. Seeds stored too long will germinate slowly and have a high rate of failure. Vigorous seeds initiate growth within seven days or sooner. Seeds that take longer than a month to germinate could always be Strong plants are the result Weak plant grown slow and produce less. People grow seeds rather than clones because of "hybrid vigor," a phenomenon that causes Fl seeds that are the product of two true-breeding parents to grow about 25 percent stronger and bigger.

Typically, a grower who acquires quality seeds from a reputable seed company germinates them all at once. Once germinated, the seeds are care- fully planted and grown to adulthood. Normally some of the seeds will be male, some will grow slowly, and two or three seeds will grow into strong Order seed catalogs "super" females.

Of these super females, one will be more robust and potent. Select this super female to be the clone mother. Mature seeds that are hard, beige to dark brown, and spotted or mottled have the highest germination rate.

Soft, pale, or green seeds are usually immature and should be avoided. Immature seeds germinate poorly and often Strong seeds are hard, mature, and dark. Fresh, dry, mature seeds less than a year old sprout quickly and grow robust plants.

Weak seeds are soft, immature, and pale. Germinating and Planting Seeds To germinate, seeds need moisture, warmth, and air oxygen. Moisture Soaking seeds in water allows moisture to pene- trate the protective seed shell within minutes. Moisture continues to wick in to activate the dormant hormones. In hours, hormones activate and send signals to produce a small white rootlet radicle.

Moisture is critical now. There must be a constant stream of moisture to transport nutri- ents, hormones, and water in order to carryon life processes. For best results use distilled water. Letting germinated seeds suffer moisture stress now will stunt seedling growth. Warmth Moist, 2SoC. Seedlings do not have enough to a slightly cooler growing area and stored energy to force through too increase light levels.

Avoid high much soil before sprouting. Plant temperatures and low light levels, seeds twice as deep as the width which cause lanky growth. For example, plant a 0. Seeds and Germination Cannabis Strains Technically and legally, all cannabis, whether rope or dope, is classified as Cannabis sativa. Regardless of origin, all cannabis is considered Cannabis sativa c. However, according to Hemp Diseases and Pests, Dr.

McPartland, R. Clarke, and D. Each has distinct growth patterns, look, smell, taste, etc. Most popular strains of cannabis are a combination of two or more of the following: But there are also many seeds with the genes from just one of the below.

Afghanica Afghani Ruderalis Lowryder Sativa Neville's Haze Indica Sensi Star has wide leaves and female plant female plant female plant is often confused with indica strains. Day 1 Presoak seeds in a glass of plain distilled water for 24 hours. Do not soak longer or they could rot.

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At first seeds will float on top of the water. As water penetrates they sink to the bottom. Within a few hours, seeds will sink to the bottom of the container.

Seeds found floating the following day are probably not viable. A small, white rootlet often emerges from strong viable seeds.

Day 2 Use a dinner plate or a small container with a grate. A grate lets excess water drain away. If using a plate, tip it to drain off excess water. Set a paper towel or cheesecloth on the plate or grate and moisten it with distilled water until saturated. Pour the water out of the glass and place the seeds on the moist paper towels and cover the seeds with three more moist paper towels.

The top of a refrigerator is ideal. Check daily and keep evenly moist but not soggy. Do not let seeds dry out or let water stand so oxygen is cut off to seeds.

Let excess water drain away freely. Preventfungal attacks by watering with a mild two-percent bleach solution. Days Once seeds have sprouted and the white sprout is visible, they are ready to be moved into the growing medium. Seeds that do not show a white rootlet now may never germinate. Do not throw them out, plant them. But such seeds might never germinate, and if they grow they could turn into weak plants. Days Prepare a seed flat, Jiffy or rockwool cubes, etc.

Water the mix in the flat with plain water until it is completely satu- rated; water should run freely from the drainage holes in the bottom when the medium is saturated. Seedlings do not have enough stored Use tweezers and carefully remove energy to force through too much each sprouted seed and set it in the soil before sprouting.

Plant seeds premade planting hole. Take care twice as deep as the width of the not to expose the tender rootlet to seed. For example, plant an eighth- prolonged intense light or air. Point inch 3 mm seed O. Make small indent about O. Cover the sprouted seed with a Once covered, gently press the O. Once planted, set the flat or rooting cubes of sprouted seed- lings under the lamp. The photo above shows clones on the left and seedlings on the right.

Seeds set inside rockwool blocks often heave up and out. Germinate seeds before planting and make sure the white rootlet is at least D. S-inch 1. S cm long to avoid this common problem. Days non-serrated cotyledon leaves In four to six days after planting, most emerge. Some seedlings will of the seeds will have broken through show their first signs of "true the planting mix or emerged from the leaves" with the classic cannabis root cube.

After seven to ten days, all the seed- In 10 to 14 days all the seedlings lings will have cotyledon leaves and should have true leaves that are many will have their first set of true the same size or larger than leaves. Some growers apply a mild quarter-strength fertilizer, but it is not necessary for another week.

Most important now is to keep the soil evenly moist. Days Start feeding two to four weeks after seedlings have sprouted.

Some growers wait until leaves yellow to begin feeding. Use a mild quarter- strength solution. If yellowing persists, give seedlings a little more fertilizer. Days Peat pellets or root cubes both seedlings and clones may be transplanted in two to three weeks or when the roots show through the sides. Feed with a dilute, quarter- strength fertilizer solution. Days 30 Grow seedlings and clones under light fluorescent or dim HID light for the next couple of weeks, until they have two to three sets of true leaves.

This is a critical time for plants, and they need extremely close attention. Do not let them dry out! Potential Problems Too much or too little light coupled with overwa- tering or' underwatering are the main reasons for poor seedling growth. This sickly freak trifoliate seedling is the result of dodgy genetics as well. Overwatering and underwatering are the biggest obstacles most growers face when germinating seeds and growing seedlings. Keep the soil uniformly moist, not waterlogged.

Do not Underwatered seedling with a let the growing medium's surface dry for long.

Setting root cubes or toxic nutrient accumulation. This seedling is also a planting flats on a grate allows good drainage. A properly watered flat of rockwo01 cubes needs water every three to five days when sprouting seeds.

When the surface is dry 0. Remember, there are few roots to absorb the water early in life, and they are very delicate. Seeds do not need any extra hormones to germinate.

Household water contains enough Soggy overwatered soil causes dissolved solids food to nourish seeds through many problems. Supplemental nutrients often disrupt internal chemistry.

How to Obtain Seeds Get seeds from a grower who developed them. This is an excellent option because the grower usually knows the strain he is growing well and can tell you many details about growing it. Most such growers can also tell you about the qualities of the plant-taste, aroma, and high. Find seeds in a bag of buds. Bag-seeds are okay because you will know more or less what the taste, aroma, and high of the final product will be like. However, you will not know the growth characteristics of the plant, and the plant will not be genetically stable.

Often the seed will grow into a plant that has only some traits of the parents. It could also have intersex hermaphro- dite tendencies. Order seeds via mail order or Internet. There are many seed shops that sell on-line listed under Find Seed Sellers Here on page Also check cannabis web site forums for more information and recommendations. Before you download anything, send the seed company an e-mail with some questions and see how long it takes them to respond.

A good seed company will respond in one to two business days with good answers to your questions. If you do not get a response, do not order! You may prefer to order from a company you can contact by telephone see note under Seed Ordering Security on page Speak to a qualified representative who will provide good answers to your questions. Companies with an e-mail address and web site are usually okay to order from, but make sure they answer your e-mails promptly. Always call several companies and ask them specific questions about the strains they sell.

Packaging is important. Seeds are easily crushed, and packaging must protect them from damage. Many seed companies place seeds inside the channels of corrugated plastic see photo left of filling seed packages at Dutch Passion. The corrugated plastic is then placed inside an envelope and mailed. The volume of first class mail is great, and all sorting is done mechanically.

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Occasionally the Postal service will find 1. How are seeds shipped in a such a seed shipment. When they do, they send a stea lth package? When wi ll seeds be shipped?

No further action is taken. Howare seeds packaged? Are seeds in stock? Some seed merchants do not tell the 5. How long does the average truth about their seed stock.

They sell you seeds order take to arrive? What happens if seeds are lost? Other companies take your money and do not 7. Do you ship worldwide? It is easy to overcome such problems with a little homework. Always check Greenman's site, www. The site also Green Man's Seedbank Update! Seed sellers are rated with one to four stars, depending on the quality and services they offer.

Greenman gives security, shipping, and payment terms as well as a rating for customer complaints including an "X" rating for rip-offs as well as many other grievances. Seeds are available at shops in many countries. You can walk right in and download them. Find such seed stores at the web sites listed by the magazines and cannabis fair guides on the following page. When you talk personally with a seed merchant, you get exact information and can ask as many questions as you want.

Often the salesperson has personal stories about favorite strains. Search "medical cannabis club" on Italy United Kingdom www.Seeds do not need any extra hormones to germinate. The long nights and short days of autumn signal marijuana to start flowering. The stomata also permit the outflow of water vapor and waste oxygen. Today this crazy, paranoid prohibition has progressed and it is necessary to grow gardens in secure locations. Early male flowers that are not open or dispersing pollen Open male flowers that are dispersing pollen Once male calyxes show.

Signs of rootbound plants include slow, weak growth and branches that develop with more distance between limbs. How to Obtain Seeds Get seeds from a grower who developed them.

JONA from Fargo
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