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Process plant layout and piping design / Ed Bausbacher, Roger. Hunt. p. ÇIȚl. Includes index. ISBN 1. Chemical piants–Design and. Fundamental principles of chemical process technology. • Terminology and symbols used in plant layout. • Equipment used in process plants. • Piping design . Equipment used in process plants comprehensive overview of Process Plant layout and Piping Design electronic (PDF) format in advance of online.

Plant layout specifications have been included for spacing, clearances, and safety requirements leading to equipment arrangement Preface within the process unit plot plan. Chaptersd through 15 deal with specific pieces of process equipment, or components of a plant such as piperacks, structures, underground piping, instrumentation and their most efficient layout in the overall plant design configuration.

Chapter 16 deals with stress analysis by step approach to basic stress analysis, which is a must for designers and engineers.

Historically, secondary school as. Novices were trained through such manual exercises as revising drawings, drawing single-line isometrics, and preparing material takeoff sheets; eventually they were given an opportunity to do simple design work. Today's computers vastly alter this learning process. One designer at a computer graphics terminal can route a line and extract the single line isometric, which includes a complete bill of material. Such rapid changes in technology demand that in.

Although the availability of the computer vastly facilitales the design of process plants, the tool itself does not. A plant layout designer is primarily skilled in the development of equipment arrangements and piping layouts found in process plants. The position offers a xiii xiv unique opportunity to demonstrate technical ability and creative talent as well as a commonsense approach to problem solving.

The world economy today demands that the design and engineering of process plants be accomplished on extremely short schedules while optimizing operations, maintenance, safety, quality, constructlbility, and economics. This demanding position offers great rewards for those willing to work to solve the countless complex layout problems Preface entailed in each individual job.

And although the took we now use to achieve these goals have changed frorr pencil and paper to computer graphics terminal, the responsibilities and challenges of the plant layout de signer remain the same.

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It is hoped that, through the: combined practical experience of both authors, this book can help designers meet those challenges sue cessfully. This chapter discusses the role and responsibilities of the plant layout designer, provides advice on how to use project data, describes the timing of various activities, offers an approach to a basic piping design layout, and lists abbreviations and common terminology.

Subsequent chapters cover plant layout specifications, major equipment layouts commonly found in such facilities, pipe rack layout, underground design, and instrumentation. The position offers an opportunity to demonstrate technical ability along with a creative talent and common-sense approach [0 problem solving. Process facilities must be designed and engineered within extremely short schedules while adhering to maintenance, safety, and quality standards; moreover, the design must take constructibility, economics, and operations into account.

Although the tools to achieve these goals are changing from pencil and paper to computer graphics terminals, the responslbillries of the plant layout design remain the same. The plant layout designer must develop layout documents during the conceptual and study phases of a project.

Knowledge of what a particular plant is designed to do. The Discipline of Layout in Context 2. Site Layout Principles 5. Methods for Layout, Conception, 3. Plot Layout Principles 6. Planning of Layout Activities 5. Layout Analogues and Visual Aids 5. Hazard Assessment of Plant Layout 8.

Transportation 8. Bulk Fluid Storage Warehouse Storage Pollution Control Utilities I: General Construction and Layout Details of Plot Layout United States, Central Services An example of a steam-traced line is shown in Exhibit Inline This term refers to a component that is placed either inside or between a pair of flanges as opposed to one attached to a piece of pipe or equipment.

An example of inline instrumentation is shown in Exhibit Header block valves These valves isolate branch lines that are not usually provided with permanent access for plant operations personnel. An example of a header arrangement is shown in Exhibit Branch The individual piping leads between headers and users are also illustrated in Exhibit Maintenance Equipment and its components require routine maintenance for continued reliability and safe operation.

A plant layout designer must proVide unobstructed space for service equipment and personnel to access and remove components without removing unrelated equipment and piping.

Operation Valves, instruments, and many types of equipment require frequent attention for operation. These items must be accessible without impairing me safety of plant personnel.

Planning for safety includes adding roadways to provide access for fire fighters and equipment; strategically placing fire detectors and hydrants around the process unit; adding sufficient ladders and stairways at structures [0 meet OSHA requirements; locating furnaces with fired burners away from potential sources of gas leaks; and setting the height and location of vents to prevent injury to operating personnel.

Cost-effective Developing the most inexpensive layOut may not translate into the most cost-effective design for the life of the plant.

An example of cost-effectiveness is the layout of steam-driven gas compressors. Although a grademounted installation is initially less expensive to install, maintenance on such arrangements often requires the dismantling of all major piping systems.

This can prolong plant downtime and translates into lost revenue for the client. Careful consideration should be given to all factors before the initially lowest-cost solution is chosen. The Basics oj Piant wyou. This often results in locating equipment in elevated structures instead of at grade, as shown in Exhibit Open systems An open system is one in which the contents of a line are discharged and not recovered.

Examples of this include a relief valve discharging into the atmosphere and a steam trap discharging onto the ground or into an open drain. Closed systems A dosed system is one in which the contents of relief systems or steam trap condensates are recovered. Examples of open and closed systems are shown in Exhibit Process Plant lAyout and Plptng Destgn Flexibility Every piping arrangement must be sufficiently flexible to allow each line to thermally expand or contract without overstressing the pipe or equipment.

Exhibit illustrates several methods to meet this flexibility requirement, including: G Relocating equipment to build flexibillty'tnto the inherent destgn of the line. G Adding an expansion loop.

Adding an expansion joint but only if a loop will not suffice. Reducing the schedule i. Pipe supports These steel members are attached to a pipe to hold it in place during operation. Supports are available in many shapes and sizes and range from those that hold a line firm enough to permit no movement to those that allow movement in any direction.

Some typical pipe supports are shown in Exhibit and include;.. Pipe shoes-These insulated lines are usually supported on shoes fabricated from structural shapes e. A standard shoe height is 4 in mm. Process Pla"t Layout and Piping Design o Spring supports- These lines move at the point of support as a result of thermal expansion or contraction and are generally supported by springs.

Designed for specific pipe loads and movements, they maintain a support under a line throughout its range of movement. Trunnions and dummy legs-These supports are used for many applications and are welded to the outside of the pipe without cutting a hole into it. Brackets-This type of support may be welded to structural members or certain pieces of equipment. It may have a cantilever design or knee bracing for supporting heavy loads.

Lines may be u-bolted, guided, or hung by rod hangers from the bracket or may rest on shoes. Two examples of constructiblliry are shown in ibit The suction piping of pump A is arranged 19 to fitting and does not allow the construction racter any way to make an adjustment to a misimenr between the centerline of the vessel and the pump. Although the piping configuration is basically correct, it ignores the construcubillty of the overall layout.

Adding a spool piece to pump B permits any adjustment that construction may require. The fitting-to-fitting arrangement at the air cooler inlet header poses a similar problem.

Installation of large air coolers often makes it impossible for a prefabricated piping configuration to be bolted to the nozzles, unless a spool piece of reasonable length is included in the layout. Heat may be applied to the problem branch lines so they can be recentered on the nozzles. The fitting-to-fitting configuration does not permit this flexibility to the constructor. Once again, the constructlbility factor should be considered. Almost everything that is rchased, constructed, or designed is governed by eclficarions.

Process Plant Layout and Piping Design

Specifications encourage uniformity j improve quality throughout all industries. For the nt layout designer, specification is an essential tool: Ignorance of or failure [0 comply with the. Specifitons set the requirements for plant equipment arIgement, operation, maintenance, and safety in the xess plant layout and detail the requirements for npliance with national codes and regulations.

The plant layout designer must be aware of all specification components and how to work effecIy with the specification.

Equipment includes every component associated with the process plant e. Equipment Arrangement General plant arrangement must be consistent With prevailing atmospheric and site conditions as well as with local codes and regulations. Equipment must be grouped within common process areas to suit independent operation and shutdown. Equipment within process and off-Site areas must be arranged to accornrnodate operational and maintenance access and to meet the safety requirements listed in Exhibit Unless required for common operation or safety, equipment is to be located in process sequence to minimize interconnecting piping.

Process units, buildings, and groups of off-site areas e. Equipment location must facilitate in-place maintenance by mobile equipment. Process equipment must be enclosed in shelters only when required by extreme climatic conditions or client preferences.

In general, piping, power, and instrument cables are to be carried on overhead pipe racks in process units and utility plants and in grade sleepers in off-site areas. Equipment Elevations Equipmeru should generally be elevated a minimum height from grade to suit process, operational, and maintenance requirements. Horizontal drums, shell and rube exchangers, and furnaces must be supported from grade by concrete piers.

Vertical vessels e. Ito "'" 1 "" ''''' I"",. Dimensions shown are to the face of equipment and are minimum. Fixed fire water sprays should be provided over equipment that handles flammable materials and operates at temperatures greater than F C and over equipment that handles light hydrocarbons with a vapor pressure greater than 65 psi 3.

English Measurement Large vacuum or crude towers with swagged bottom sections and compressors that are to be elevated for operational needs must be supported from concrete structures. Equipment that must be elevated for process requirements e. When practical, air coolers should also be supported from Process Pmnt lAyout and PipIng Design " overhead pipe racks. M NA NA '0;. NA Nt. I At; M tv! Metric Measurement ading areas, and groups of off-site equipment that quire access for maintenance and fire fighting.

An equate road network and parking facility should be ovided at administration buildings, the main plant ntrol room, firehouses, and warehouses. Access ys or secondary roads must be provided within pro;s units and utility plants so that equipment can be noved for off-unit repair and chemicals and catats can be loaded and unloaded. Roads must be nped over piping at intersections with grade-level epers, Paving within process units and utility plants should: Unless luired for maintenance reasons, paving need not extend to auxiliary roads.

Off-Site area paving must be provided at groups of equipment e. These unpaved areas are not surfaced. Unpaved areas within the battery limits of process units and utility plants must be graded and surfaced with crushed stone or a similar material.

Except for floors in control and switchgear buildings, all indoor and outdoor paving must be sloped for drainage. Curbs and walls are to be used in process units and utility plants to contain spills from equipment. Bottom of baseplate Bottom of baseplate t shaft Bottom of baseplate f.

These datums correspond to the site elevation highlighted In the project design data specification. Dimensions shown in b OffSile are heights above high point of grade. All concrete support elevations shown for equipment include an allowance for grout.

All dimensions shown are minimum. Dikes, curbs, and walls used to contain tank spills must be able to accommodate the volume of the largest tank in the area. When calculating the size of enclosure, the designer must consider the displacement volume of all other tanks l.

Process Plant 14,yout and Plptng Design 1'9" NA NA Railroad systems that are designed for in-plant operation and that intersect or form part of the main line are to conform with standards and practices of the main-line railroad or appropriate authority.

Stairways must be provided to lead to service levels uructures, buildings, compressor house decks, and naces that require frequent access by plant opera S personnel. Storage tanks larger than 15 ft 4, 1 in diameter and higher than 20 ft 6, mm require stairs for access.

Ladders must be proed for vessel platforms, secondary service levels in ictu res , and furnaces and at storage tanks with the tensions previously mentioned. Escape ladders st also be provided from service levels so that no nt on a platform is horizontally more than 75 ft , mm in walking distance from a main or seclary exit.

Side exit ladders are preferred. Flare ks need only be provided with a single continuous ler for tip inspection and access to the top maintece platform.

Self-closing gates at ladder openings ill platforms are also required. Platform, ladder, and way dimensions and clearances should be in aclance with those shown in Exhibit Unless othlse noted, dimensions shown are minimum.

EXHIBIT Platforms, Ladders, and Stairs Dimensions Item Description It mm Platforms Headroom 7' 2, Width of walkways grade or 3' elevated Maximum variance between 9" platforms without an intermediate step Width at vertical vessels 3' Distance between inside radius ]0" and inside of platform on vertical vessels Maximum distance of platform or 5' 1.

If equipment is located within shelters, suitable facilities e. Drop areas must exist within shelters that use fixed handling facilities.

There should also be drop areas for vertical equipment that must be lowered to grade. There must be adequate area at all shell and tube exchangers for redding or tube bundle removal and at furnaces for coil removal. Exhibit highlights some of the principal maintenance activities and handling devices associated with a conventional operating plant.

Plant Operation There must be clear access at grade and at elevated platforms so that operation of the plant can proceed in a safe and unrestricted manner.

Process Plant Layout and Piping Design

Valves and instruments are to be placed so that they can be operated or viewed but do not impede access at grade and elevated walkways. Operating valves that cannot conveniently be located below a centerline elevation of 6 ft 9 in 2, mm from grade or platform must have chain operators, extension stems, or motor operators. Except for battery limit valves, all unit isolation valves must be located at grade. Exhibit highlights the minimum requirements for operator access to controls.

Above-Ground Piping With the exception of pipeline pumping stations, sewers, and most cooling water systems, piping is generally run above grade in process plants. When located below ground, process piping that has protective heating or that requires inspection and servicing should Process Plant Layout and PIping Design be located in trenches. In process units and utility plants, piping to equipment must run overhead to meet operator and maintenance clearances.

Short runs of piping e. Piping in such off-Site areas as tank farms must run approximately 18 in mm above grade and must provide adequate access to controls and maintenance areas by walk-over stiles. Offsite pipe racks must be located adjacent to storage tank dikes. Within diked areas, piping must run by the most direct route unless limited by flexibility and tank settlement. Piping serving a tank or tanks in a common area must not run through adjoining diked areas. All insulated piping that passes through dikes and all piping passing under roads or railroads must be enclosed in metal pipe sleeves.

Uninsulated piping passing through dikes should be coated and wrapped but not sleeved. Piping systems must facilitate the removal of equipment without removing the associated piping and controls.

Piping systems are to be arranged with sufficient flexibility to reduce any excessive stresses and, when possible, to accommodate expansion without using expansion bellows. Line spacing should be based on anticipated line movements under regular operating conditions. The top of stacks and continuously operating vents that discharge hazardous vapors must be positioned at least 10 ft 3, rom above any platform within a horizontal radius of 70 ft 21, mm from the vent or stack.

Intermittent vents that discharge hazardous vapors into the atmosphere are to be located a minimum of 10 ft 3, mm above any platform within a horizontal radius of 35 ft 10, mm from the vent. Nonhazardous vapors e. It is used 0 locate equipment and supporting infrastructure and to establish the sequence of major engineering and construction activities. Plot plans are used by almost every engineering group within a pro]ect task force from estimating and scheduling through construction.

The plot plan is developed by the plant layout designer, usually at the proposal stage of the project, and remains the responsibility of the designer throughout construction. Similar process units engineered for two clients may look vastly different for various reasons, including available real estate, soil and climate conditions, and client philosophy on operation, maintenance, and safety. For these reasons, uandardtzauon of process unit plot plans is difficult.

It identifies the iformauon required to locate operating equipment nd supporting facilities to suit operator and rnainteance access, constructibility, process operation, ifety, and cost-effective design.


These are required for given process integrated within a common battery Plot Plans limit area, usually designed for independent operation and shutdown. The finaJ plot plan identifies all the components by designated numbers and shows, [0 scale, the basic shapes of the equipment and'supporting facilities, locating them in both the vertical and the horizontal planes.

Generally, the arrangement is shown in the plan with elevated views furnished only for clarity e. Plot plans developed with three-dimensional CAD modeling have the advantage of producing multiple plans, elevations, and isometric views with no additional effort.

The plot plan is used for the functions discussed in the following sections. Piping design The plot plan is used to produce equipment arrangement studies that facilitate the interconnection of above- and below-ground process and utility piping systems and to.

Civil engineering The plot plan is used to develop grading and drainage plans, holding ponds, diked areas, foundation and structural designs, and all bulk material estimates. Electrical engineering The plot plan is used to produce area classification drawings, to locate switchgear and the incoming substation and motor control center, to route cables, and to estimate bulk materials.

Instrument engineering TIle plot plan is used to care analyzer houses and cable trays, assist in the location of the main control house, and estimate bulk materials. Systems engineering The plot plan is used to facihtate hydraulic design, line sizing, and utility block flow requirements. Scheduling The plot plan Is used to schedule the orderly completion of engineering activities.

Estimating The plot plan is used to estimate the overall cost of the plant. Client use The plot plan is used for safety, operator. Plot plan arrangement is a reflection of the designer's ability to anticipate mechanical problems and provide the necessary access for operation and maintenance as well as the designer's general experience with plant layout requirements.

The intended goal is to produce a safe, cost-effective operational plant, which will probably remain in use for at least 25 years. Therefore, it is important that any errors in Process Plant Layout and Plptng Design EXHIBIT Sample Proposal Plot Plan arrangement be recognized and eliminated during the plot plan development phase of the project because they can be costly to correct once the plant is in operation.

Plot plans are generally developed in stages, from the initial concept to the fully dimensioned document at the construction issue stage.

The proposal plot plan, shown in Exhibit , is developed during the estimate phase of the project and is used to estimate bulk materials. It is also included in the proposal as a representation of the unit arrangement to the prospective client.

The proposal plot plan is based on limited information and generally indicates only the principal items of equipment, main supporting facilities, and overall dimensions.

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After contract award, the proposal plot plan is updated to suit the latest information and is reviewed and approved by the client. This document becomes the basis for the plant layout phase of the project and is called the planning plot plan. A sample planning plot plan is shown in Exhibit On completion of the plant layout phase-when all the equipment has been Sized and is in the best position to suit the pro]ect requirements and when all access roads, buildings, and pipe racks have been located-the plot plan is finally issued for construction.

This is illustrated in Exhibit as the construction plot plan. To develop a plot plan, the designer must assemble the information discussed in the following sections. A sample equipment list is given in Exhibit The process flow diagram The process flow diagram is one of the most important documents required by the designer to position equipment, It indicates flow rates, temperatures, and pressures and how the various pieces of equipment are interconnected.

The process flow diagram generally does not show utility equipment e. These can be obtained from the equipment list. The process flow diagram does not always show the true representation of the equipment, A shell and tube exchanger shown as a single item could turn out to be two or more shells for a large load. Exhibit shows a process flow diagram that incorporates the items in the sample equipment list.

The block Bow diagram The block flow diagram shows all primary interconnecting lines between process units, utility plants, and storage facilities. Although not absolutely essential, it is a useful document for equipment location: Specifications Similar to the plant layout specification discussed in Chapter 2, this document highlights maintenance, operator access, clearances, and equipment spacing. Process design data The process design data gives site information on a map or an overall existing plot plan.

The existing plot plan, or site map, shows such geographic details as roads, railroads, rivers or seashore, land contours, and inhabited areas.

It also indicates the location and extent of real estate available for the new facility or expansion. The process design data indicates weather conditions e. It also gives the plant elevation datum and reference coordinates for plant location. Equipment sizes At this phase of the project, the equipment sizes for the plant are furnished by the supporting groups on the basis of preliminary information and cover. As the project progresses, equipment configurations and sizes become firm and the plot plan is updated accordingly.

Exhibit lists sampie information that must be supplied. Materials of construction A materials specialist marks up a process flow diagram identifying special or critical piping materials e. The diagram assists the plant layout designer in optimizing equipment locations to suit the most economic piping runs. In terms of equipment arrangement, process unit plot plans can basically be divided into two configurations: PlO e:.

FLuX p' Exhibit shows a typical horizontal lnltne plot plan arrangement. The Structure-Mounted Vertical Arrangement The structure-mounted vertical arrangement has equipment located in a rectangular multilevel steel or concrete structure.

The structure can be several bays long and either open-sided or fully enclosed, to suit either client preference or climate conditions. Piping and cabling usually enter and exit the structure at one level and gain access to each floor by chases or are supported from the outside members.

Operators usually gain access to each level by stairs or by elevator. Equipment maintenance is usually accomplished through the use of hitch points, trolley beams, or traveling cranes. An adequate area must be provided around each item along with a clear drop zone at grade for equipment removal. The structure, is serviced by access roads. The advantages of this type of arrangement are the small amount of real estate required for the plant and the ability to house the facility to suit process requirements or climate conditions.

The disadvantages are in the operator and maintenance access and in the construction of the plant. They are discussed in the following sections. Plant Layout Specification This document highlights spacing requirements for equipment and access widths and elevation clearances for operator and maintenance access.

A typical plant layout specification can be found in Chapter 2. The sample specification shown in Exhibit highlights the safety spacing requirements around a process furnace. Economic Piping The major portion of the piping within most process units is used to interconnect equipment and support COntrols between equipment. To minimize the cost of Plotp! The sequential interconnection of the unit is shown on the process flow diagram. The first step is to identify the alloy or heavy wall piping.

The diagram should then be subdivided into smaller grouos of process-related equipment. These groups should contain an assembly of related equipment and controls that function as a subsystem within the main process unit.

The components within the subsystem should be arranged to suit the most economic piping runs, and the whole assembly should be positioned within the plot area to provide the most economic interconnection between related process subsystems. GU l"E! Subsystem Arrangement 3. Subdivided Process Flow Diagram c. The plant ayout designer must be familiar with the process beause the process flow diagram rarely indicates this nforrnation.

It is recommended that the designer disuss these requirements with the process engineer efore proceeding with the plant arrangement. Exibit shows the effects of an arrangement with a ravity feed process requirement. For example, xnpressors generally require hour operator atntion. Compressors with condensing steam turbine rives often share the same surface condenser and are cated in a compressor house using a common fixed indling faciliry e.

Exhibit shows a typical compressor area arrangement. Real Estate Availability Generally, most new process units are built within an existing facility in which a piece of land is dedicated to the new expansion. Older process units, which have undergone many expansions, often leave a less-thandesirable piece of real estate for the next new facilitY. This can be a problem for inline horizontal arrangements but is less so for vertical structure arrangements, which require less ground space.

When an inline arrangement is constructed, it is recommended that parts of the unit be located in elevated structures with related equipment located adjacent to it if the process permits.This can be achieved through dose review of the piping and instrumentation diagrams and freehand sketching of major piping configurations to ensure that the piping will be routed in an orderly manner.

Exibit shows the effects of an arrangement with a ravity feed process requirement. About the only ways knowledge and techniques were absorbed were by tedious, repetitious design functions and through working with experienced peers. I commend the authors on their remarkable effort in accumulating and developing this data and presenting it in such a practical and commonsense manner. The Logic Diagram The design of any processing plant is usually accomplished in three phases: They are usually of the reciprocating piston-type and are the only compressors that can compress gas to extremely high pressures.

The diagram shown in Exhibit outlines the sequence of these activities, along with the principal input required and output generated. This vessel removes moisture and particles from the gas by passing it through a dernister screen, which is located just below the outlet nozzle.

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